Coursera on String Quartets
I have just completed a 7 week free music course on “The World of String Quartets” at the online course “Coursera”. Only when I began to take notes did I pass the questions from each week’s program.
Coursera offers courses from many different universities in all subjects. This one was for the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia in U.S.A.
I really got to appreciate the two teachers and the young female string quartet who gave the many excerpts of music to illustrate the teaching. Arnold Steinhart was the first violinist in a famous string quartet the Guarneri String Quartet. They performed together for 45 years. In the course Arnold Steinhart explains how it was to work together on a piece of music that was hard to understand and perform. They tried different ways and decided what worked best afterwards. Sometimes they were totally moved by the music without losing control and weep on the scene. He has an age where his teachers personally knew some of the famous composers like Ravel.
The father of string quartets’ is Joseph Haydn from the Classical era even though the genre was starting a bit before that. The music is distilled and refined via those four instruments the first violin, the second violin, the viola and the double-bass. The whole spectrum of feelings and sounds can be expressed by these four string instruments.
Touching moments from the course
Felix Mendelssohn and Schubert are both from the Romantic period and the weight from Beethoven was heavy. Those two Romantic composers added their own suffering to the genre. Mendelssohn after losing his sister and worn out from too much work in Leipzig and Franz Schubert in his string Quartet “The Death and The Maiden”.
He was marked by death in his third stadium of syphilis. His string quartet has “A heavenly length” as Schumann said, the melody in the second slow movement is based on a song he had written seven years earlier. The rest of the movements are very fast and listening you can imagine the personal suffering on leaving this world and losing everything only 31 years old.
The French Impressionists painters and the French Maurice Ravel and Debussy worked at the same time period.
The difference in Debussy’s and Ravel’s music?
They have only created on string quartet each and these two string quartets have always been difficult for me to identify from each other. In the course we learnt that Debussy, the oldest of the two composers, had less structure and Ravel’s was the more classical. I have linked the two quartets from YouTube.
Both used the themes to come in a cyclic form and they used Spanish and Asian tone scales. Since my youth I have loved both composers and they sparked my interest in Classical music.
There are similarities in the last string quartets of Benjamin Britten and Dmitri Shostakovich as Benjamin Britten was dying and Dmitri Shostakovich was depressed while writing his string quartet # 8. Both left an enormous production of the finest music.
Photos from my book on Classical music “The Lives & Times of the great composers” by Michael Steen
Britten’s last string quartet was his third an in it he gives his farewell to life. He died in 1973 of heart problems and a stroke after years of strenuous work . It’s thought to be his greatest achievement among his enormous production. It ends with an unanswered question and with his markings “Dying out”. He was Shostakovich’s only friend from Western Europe.
Shostakovich was in Dresden in 1960 where his eights’ string quartet in the tragic key C-Minor, was performed as a memorial to the Dresden bombings in 1945 and to all who suffered from the deeds of fascism. It was written through tears as an epigraph of his own life. His initials D-S-C-H are hidden throughout the work as a code language in the key notes.
He thought that nobody would write anything in remembrance of him so he did it himself. He had suffered his through out from Stalin’s unpredictable way of ruling sending millions to their deaths in camps for anything. In the first movement he quotes his first and fifth symphony. In the second movement Jewish music can be heard. In the third movement fragments from his cello concerto and from Russian Folk Music can be heard. In the fourth movement fragments can be heard from his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District that cost him the anger of Stalin.
The American composer Samuel Barber (1901-1981) his music was classical and not as modern as his contemporaries. He studied music at the Curtis institute that gave these online lectures.
In his string quartet the second slow movement, the Adagio has become one of the most touching pieces of music from the last century written just before the WWII. It’s more know as the Adagio for Strings. It was like a foreboding of the upcoming war.
“Different trains” for String quartet and tape from 1988 by Steve Reich born 1936 in New York city.
He put taped short interviews into the music by people from the time before, during and after the war together with sounds from the same periods. As a child he went by train to see his parents who had been divorced and lived far apart.
Steve Reich imagined that he as a Jew was on a train to an extermination camp. Reich was the father of Modernism.
Other American composers
Charles Ives (1874-1954) He studied music at Yale but lived his life as a life insurance sales man. He used motives from church hymns in his string quartet. He was not recognized until after his death.
John Cage (1912-1992) with his famous “Four minutes and 33 seconds” where the pianists enters the scene, sits down at the piano for that period and bows and leaves. Cage wanted to give room for the surrounding sounds during the silent performance.
At the end of the course a new called composer is mentioned David Ludwig with his string quartet from 2014 called “Pale Blue Dot”.
I am not there yet to cherish that work of David Ludwig but the two professors in the course return to Ludwig Van Beethoven’s late string quartet opus 130 in six movements. The first four are traditional but then the fifth a “Cavatina”, meaning a simple song takes the listener into a hushed dark privacy a deep inner travel into Beethoven’s
In utter deafness and despair he said:
He wouldn’t let us stay in that state of mind but takes us to a demanding double fugue into all feelings in a mixture of dissonance and harmony and great joy. Here played by the Casal Quartet).
The Great Fugue is like an internal journey that reaches into the Freudian time a hundred years later. The music is breathtakingly honest and raw. Igor Stravinsky said he loved the Great Fugue and called it
“For ever Contemporary”